루카스 크라나흐

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루카스 크라나흐

林湖
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Representations of St Jerome
by Lucas CRANACH the Elder

 

자화상   1550

 

루카스 크라나흐

(Lucas Cranach, 1472년~1553년)는

독일의 화가이다.

 

프랑켄 지방의 크로나흐에서 태어났다.

 

초기의 크라나흐는

알브레히트 알트도르퍼와 볼프 후버 등과 이른바 도나우파(派)의 일각을 형성하고,

독일의 산림 풍경을 신선하고 서정적으로 그렸으며,

또 동시에 마티아스 그뤼네발트를 생각케 하는 표현주의적 색채가 농후하고

극적인 박력이 넘치는 작품을 남기고 있다.

 

The Rest on the Flight into Egypt
1504
Limewood, 69 x 51 cm
Staatliche Museen, Berlin

 

(전자의 예로서 베를린의 다렘 미술관 소장인 <이집트 도피 徐中의 휴식>,

후자의 예는 뮌헨의 알테 피나코테크 소장의 <십자가의 그리스도>를 들 수 있다)

 

 

Crucifixion
1503
Pine panel, 138 x 99 cm
Alte Pinakothek, Munich

 

1505년 비텐베르크에 이사한 그는 커다란 아틀리에를 차리고,

우미한 여성의 나체상과 신화화(神話畵)를 많이 그렸으며,

루터나 기타 저명인사의 초상화에도 걸작이 많다.

 

1537~1544년에 걸쳐 그곳 시장(市長)을 지냈던 그는 사회적으로 존경을 받았으며,

또한 루터의 종교개혁을 열렬하게 지지하기도 하였고,

만년에 가서는 바이마르의 궁정화가로 지내다가 1553년 거기에서 운명하였다.

 

또 이름이 같은 그의 아들(1515~1586)도 화가로서 부친의 조수·후계자가 되어 활약하였다.

 

 

In the Middle Ages the Church Father Jerome,

whose Latin translation of the Bible from early Hebrew and Greek texts

is still in use and known as the 'Vulgate'(the generally familiar version),

became one of the most prominent saints.

 

St Jerome is generally shown in paintings as a penitent in the desert,

which for want of knowledge of its true nature is represented

as a kind of richly wooded wasteland.

 

However, another pictorial type was also formulated,

emphasizing his philological work and making him a role model, even among humanists:

it shows Jerome as a cardinal in his study, working on texts.

 

Cranach painted several versions of both types,

the Penitent St Jerome in the Desert, St Jerome in his Study,

and the blend of the two types, St Jerome Writing in a Landscape.

 

 

 

The Penance of St Jerome
1502
Oil and tempera on limewood, 56 x 42 cm
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
 
 
 
 
St Jerome Writing in a Landscape
c. 1515
Oil and tempera on wood, 68 x 58 cm
JAPS Collection, Mexico City
 
 

 
St Jerome in a Landscape
1515-20
Limewood panel, 51 x 38 cm
Staatliche Museen, Berlin
 
 
 
St Jerome in the Desert
c. 1525
Oil and tempera on firwood, 90 x 67 cm
Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck
 
 
 
Cardinal Albrecht of Brandenburg as St Jerome in His Study
1525
Oil and tempera on limewood, 117 x 78 cm
Hessisches Landesmuseum, Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
Cardinal Albrecht of Brandenburg as St Jerome in His Study
1526
Oil and tempera on wood, 115 x 79 cm
Ringling Museum of Art, Sarasota
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Religious themes (until 1515)
by Lucas CRANACH the Elder

 

We can only make assumptions about the artistic training of Lucas Cranach the Elder.

He was almost thirty by the time he arrived in Vienna in about 1500,

where he quickly found his feet in university circles and in the company of leading humanists.

 

His early works are no longer youthful pieces but the style is still stormy and expressive, incorporating ideas he may have acquired in Hungary and Poland.

 

With these works Cranach paved the way for the Danube School.

 

 

The Crucifixion
1500-03
Oil and tempera on limewood, 59 x 45 cm
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

 

 

 

Crucifixion
1503
Pine panel, 138 x 99 cm
Alte Pinakothek, Munich

 

 

 

Crucifix
1510-15
Oil and tempera on limewood, 42 x 28 cm
Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt

 

 

 

The Rest on the Flight into Egypt
1504
Limewood, 69 x 51 cm
Staatliche Museen, Berlin

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Martyrdom of St Catherine
1504-05
Oil and tempera on limewood, 112 x 95 cm
Collection of the Reformed Church, Budapest

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pietà beneath the Cross
c. 1510
Oil and tempera on limewood, 63 x 41 cm
Moravsk� Galerie, Brno

 

 

 

 

Apostles Peter and Paul
c. 1515
Oil and tempera on limewood, 27 x 18 cm (each)
Private collection

 

 

 

 

Christ at the Column, Adored by Saints
1515
Oil and tempera on limewood, 60 x 52 cm
Gemäldegalerie, Dresden

 

 

 

Trinity
1515-18
Panel
Kunsthalle, Bremen

 

 

 

The Trinity 
-
Oil on wood
Museum der Bildenden K�nste, Leipzig

 

 Religious themes (from 1516)

by Lucas CRANACH the Elder

 

Lucas Cranach developed a close friendship with Martin Luther.

 

He accompanied Luther's tracts against Catholics

with a number of particularly cutting illustrative schemes.

 

He produced allegories of Law and Justice and paintings of Christ summoning the children,

or showing mercy to the adulteress, each of which was produced in large numbers,

 

 

Nativity
1515-20
Oil and tempera on limewood, 32 x 25 cm
Gemäldegalerie, Dresden

 

 

 

The Mystic Marriage of St Catherine
c. 1516
Oil and tempera on limewood, 68 x 47 cm
Sz�pm�v�szeti M�zeum, Budapest

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Annunciation to Joachim
1516-18
Oil on panel, 61 x 51 cm
Sz�pm�v�szeti M�zeum, Budapest

 

 

 

 

 

Plague Picture
1516-18
Oil and tempera on limewood, 75 x 56 cm
Sz�pm�v�szeti M�zeum, Budapest
 

 


 

 

 

 

 

Christ and the Virgin Mary (or Mary Magdalen)
1515-20
Oil and tempera on parchment laid down on oak, 34 x 53 cm
Schlossmuseum, Gotha

 

 

 

 

 

Christ's Head with Crown of Thorns
1520-25
Oil and tempera on limewood, 28 x 21 cm
Private collection

 

 

 

Young Mother with Child
1520s
Oil and tempera on red beechwood, 60 x 37 cm
Wartburg-Stiftung, Eisenach

 

 


 

 

St Mary Magdalen
1525
Oil and tempera on beechwood, 48 x 30 cm
Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Cologne
 
 
 
 
Law and Gospel
1529
Limewood panel
Schlossmuseum, Gotha
 
 
 
 
Christ and the Adulteress
1532
Oil on panel, 83 x 121 cm
Sz�pm�v�szeti M�zeum, Budapest


 

 

Christ Blessing the Children
1535-40
Oil and tempera on beechwood, 84 x 122 cm
Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt

 
 
 
 
 
The Crucifixion with the Converted Centurion
1536
Oil on panel, 51 x 35 cm
National Gallery of Art, Washington
 
 Biblical nudes
by Lucas CRANACH the Elder

 

The subject of Adam and Eve was one of the most popular of the Cranach workshop,

at least 50 paintings of Adam and Eve survive.

 

The earliest surviving versions of Adam and Eve by Cranach,

painted around 1510,

show the nude figures against a neutral background.

 

From the 1520s Cranach depicted

Adam and Eve in a landscape setting accompanied by various animals.

 

 

Adam and Eve
1508-10
Oil and tempera on red beechwood, 139 x 54 cm (each)
Mus�e des Beaux-Arts et d'Arch�ologie, Besan�on

 

 

 

Adam and Eve
c. 1510
Oil and tempera on limewood, 58 x 44 cm
Muzeum Narodowe, Warsaw

 

 

 

Adam and Eve
1526
Oil and tempera on maplewood, 117 x 81 cm
Courtauld Gallery, London

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adam and Eve
1528
Oil on wood, 172 x 63 cm and 167 x 61 cm
Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

 

 

 

Adam and Eve
1531
Lime wood, 170 x 70 cm
Gemäldegalerie, Dresden

 

 

 

Adam and Eve
1533
Oil and tempera on red beechwood, 51 x 35 cm
Staatliche Museen, Berlin

 

 

 

Adam and Eve
c. 1538
Panel
N�rodn� Galerie, Prague

 

 

 

Adam and Eve
-
Panel
Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp

 

 

 

 

Adam and Eve
-
Panel
Mus�es Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels

 

 

 

The Paradise
1530
Limewood, 81 x 114 cm
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

 

 

 

Caritas (Charity)
1534
Oil and tempera on wood
Museum zu Allerheiligen, Schaffhausen

 

 

 

Charity
-
Oil on panel, 50 x 34 cm
Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp

 

 

 

 


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