Welcome to Wild Rose Country

[영국 여행14]테이트 모던에 소장된 걸작품 감상하기 4편/피카소, 달리, 콜더,칸딘스키,몬드리안,레제르,니콜슨,두스베르흐,알베르스

작성일 작성자 Helen of Troy


 

Antennae with Red and Blue dots  c. 1953

붉은 점과 푸른 점이 있는 안테나


by Alexander Calder (콜더:  1898-1976)

born USA, worked France and USA

Aluminium and steel wire

purchased 1962


Calder was fascinated with making art that changed shape as it moved slowly in the air.

He attached together delicately balanced groups of objects that he suspended from

the ceiling.  one of his friends, the French artist Marcel Duchamp invented the term

'mobile' to describe these works.  So Calder invented the mobile.  To keep things simple

he used mostly black, white and the primary colors of red, blue and yellow.  Here, the colors

of small discs help us trace their movement against the black shapes below.






Strip (921-6)  2011


by Gerhard Richter (리히너: 1932 - )

born and works Germany

Digital print on paper between aluminium and acrylic

Presented by Tate Members 2015


Gerhard Richter made a rumor of multicolored paintings using a giant suqugee in tool

with a flat, smooth rubber blade.  In 2011, at the age of 80, he used computer software

to divide a photograph of one of these paintings into thin strips, splitting and dividing it

again and again.  The digital print here creates strange effects on your eyes.

The marks made by the paint when the artist painted  the original  picture

have disappeared.  The digital picture makes us think about 

what a painting might be in the computer age.


What has happened to the role of the artist?







by Benode Behari Mukherjee(무크헤르지: 1904-1980)

born and worked India

Colored paper collage on card

Purchased with funds provided by the South Asia Acquisitions Committee 2014


Indian artist artist Benode Behari Mukherjee wasinspired by art from around the world,

especially traditional Japanese and Indian art and modern European art.  He was born

blind in one eye and when he lost the sight in both eyes he began to make paper collages.

Mukherjee thought that colour had mystical equalities  He said he could tell the colour

of paper by touch and his inner eye guided his fingers to create art.





Three Figures c. 1960

세 인물


by Benode Behari Mukherjee(무크헤르지: 1904-1980)

born and worked India

Colored paper collage on card





Still Life with Key c. 1965

열쇄가 있는 정물화


by Benode Behari Mukherjee(무크헤르지: 1904-1980)

born and worked India

Colored paper collage on card





Game c. 1960

게임


by Benode Behari Mukherjee(무크헤르지: 1904-1980)

born and worked India

Colored paper collage on card





Lady with Fruit 1957

과일과 여인


by Benode Behari Mukherjee(무크헤르지: 1904-1980)

born and worked India

Colored paper collage on card





Conversation c. 1960

대화


by Benode Behari Mukherjee(무크헤르지: 1904-1980)

born and worked India

Colored paper collage on card




Two Triangles 1957

두개의 삼각형


by Benode Behari Mukherjee(무크헤르지: 1904-1980)

born and worked India

Colored paper collage on card





The Snail   1953

달팽이


by Henri Matisse Matisse(마티스: 1869-1954)

Born and worked France


Gouache on paper, cut and pasted on paper mounted on canvas

Purchased with assistance from the Friends of the Tate Gallery 1962


When Henri Matisse was in his sixties he wanted to make art but ill health made it difficult

for him to paint.  Instead he started 'painting with scissors', cutting painted paper into 

shapes.  His assistants moved the paper pieces according to Matisse's directions, pinning

them to the walls of his studio.  If you look closely at The Snail you can see small pin holes.

Matisse has arranged paper in the spiral shape of a snail's shell, placing colours next to

 each other to create a vibrant effect: green and red, orange and blue, pink and yellow.






History Paintings   1995

그림의 역사


by Maria Lalic(랄리치: 1952- )

Born and works Britain

Oil paint on canvas

Presented by the Patrons of New Art through the Tate Gallery Foundation 1997


CAN COLOUR RELATE TO A PARTICULAR PERIOD IN TIME?


Maria Lilic's paintings explore the history ofcolour pigments that were used to make paint.

Each painting is made from semi0-transparent layers of pigment that were discovered in the

time referred to in the painting's title.  The artist was inspired by an old colour chart

from paint manufacturer Winsor and Newton.  It grouped pigments into six historical

periods: Cave, Egyptian, Greek, Italian,18th and 19th century, and 20th century. 


There isone painting for each period displayed here. Looking closely at the edges you can 

see the different paints she has layered to create the final colour of the painting.






Cosaques  1910-11

Cossacks/코사크


by Wassily Kandinsky(칸딘스키: 1866-1944)

Born Russia, worked Germany and France

Oil paint on canvas

Presented by Mrs. Hazel McKinley 1938


CAN YOU HEAR MUSIC WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE PAINTING?


The 'cossacks' of the title are Russian cavalrymen which you can just recognise from their

orange hats at the top and right of the painting.  However Wassily Kandinsky believed

paintings did not need to represent the real world.  He felt that emotions could be expressed

through the way colours and lines were arranged in a painting.  He linked musical tones

to partiuclar colours, and considered colour to have powerful spiritual impact.  






Yellow versus Purple  2003

노란색 대 보라색


by Olafur Eliasson(엘리아손: 1967 - )

Born Denmark, works Germany

Glass, steel cable, motor, floodlightand tripod




Yellow versus Purple  2003


by Olafur Eliasson(엘리아손: 1967 - )

Born Denmark, works Germany

Glass, steel cable, motor, floodlightand tripod




Yellow versus Purple  2003


by Olafur Eliasson(엘리아손: 1967 - )

Born Denmark, works Germany

Glass, steel cable, motor, floodlightand tripod




Yellow versus Purple  2003


by Olafur Eliasson(엘리아손: 1967 - )

Born Denmark, works Germany

Glass, steel cable, motor, floodlightand tripod




Yellow versus Purple  2003


by Olafur Eliasson(엘리아손: 1967 - )

Born Denmark, works Germany

Glass, steel cable, motor, floodlightand tripod

Purchased using funds provided by the 2003 Outset/

Frieze Art Fair Fund to benefit the Tate collection 2003


Why don't you walk through this space?  Look at the shapes and colours that cover

your body.  Olafur Eliasson uses space, colour and light to create his works.  Here, the

light shining through the rotating disc of glass makes a yellow shape on wall.  At the same

time a special filter on the glass that orbits the room like a planet.  Why do you think 

the artist has chosen to use yellow and purple?  When you stare at something bright

yellow, and then at something white, you see a purple 'after image'.





Yellow versus Purple  2003


by Olafur Eliasson(엘리아손: 1967 - )

Born Denmark, works Germany

Glass, steel cable, motor, floodlightand tripod






Composition C (No. III) with Red, Yellow and Blue  1935

붉은색, 노란색과 파란색의 구성 C 


by Piet Mondrian (몬드리안: 1872-1944)

Born Netherlands, worked Netherladns, France, Britain, USA

Oil paint on canvas

Lent from a private collection 1981


This composition is prime example Mondrian's astonishingly limited visual language.

It consists of just horizontal and vertical lines in black, with planes of white and the three

primary colours, from which all other colours are derived by mixing. The structure, the order

of the elements in a coherent whole and the pure colour were meant to suggest an ethical view

of society.  Each individual element and the configuration to which it contributes were intended

to symbolise the relationship between the individual  and the collective, or the universal.






P

Bicho-Maquete (320)  1964

Creature-Maquette (320)/생물체 모형


 by Lygia Clark (클라크: 1920- 1988)

Born Brazil, worked Brazil, France

Aluminium

Presented by the American Fund for the Tate Gallery 2012


Clark made a series of geometric, hinged-aluminium sculptures which she titled 'Creatures',

for which this is a working model.  They were originally intended to be manipulated by hand,

so that the sculpture offered multiple possible forms that could only be determined through

the participation of the viewer.  This idea of the artwork as a lived experience was increasingly

important for Clark.  It is underlined by the title, which encourages us to see the

sculpture as a living thing.






Deux femmes tenant des fleurs 1954

Two Women Holding Flowers/꽃을 든 두 여인


by Fernand Léger (레제르: 1881-1955)

Born France, worked France, USA, Switzerland

Oil paint on canvas

Purchased 1959


Léger often painted works showing two women together.  This theme of pair of figures

had precedents in classical art, and allowed the artist to explore the rhyming shapes and

patterns  created by the symmetrical image.  Here two women are seen with their limbs

intertwined, in a state of physical ease and relaxation.  one holds a flower, a symbol of

natural beauty and fertility.  However, this is no rustic idyll.  The figures are drawn as outlines

upon an abstract background of seemingly casually arranged rectangles of bright colours,

giving the painting a typically modern sense of energy and dynamism.






Composition abstraite 1934

Abstract Composition/추상적인 구성


by Jean Hélion (헬리옹:  1904-1987)

Born France, worked France, USA

Oil paint on canvas

Accepted by HM Government in lieu of inheritance tax and allocated to Tate 2002


Hélion saw himself as belonging to the second generation of abstract artists in Paris,

after pioneers such as Piet Mondrian and Theo van Doesburg.  He was an energetic promoter

of abstract or non-figurative art, and helped to found international groups such as  Art Concret

and Abstraction-Creation.  He believed that abstract art, however radical, shared timeless values of

 balance, rhythm and composition with the great art of the past.  In this small painting he creates

 a compositional unity through the visual resolution of vertical an horizontal forms and color relationships.







Composition with Two Ovals 1951

두개의 타원이 있는 구성


by SalouaRaouda Choucarr(슈케르: 1916-2017)

Born Lebanon, worked Lebanon, France

Oil paint on canvas

Purchased with funds provided by the Middle East North Africa Acquistions Committee 2014






Repetition against blue 1943

파란색을 저지하는 반복


by Josef Albers (알베르스: 1888-1976)

born Germany, worked Germany, USA


Albers was fascinated by the nature of visual perception. The interlocking shapes of Repetition Against Blue 

teasingly play with ideas of perspective, and the question of what is foreground and what is background 

cannot be satisfactorily resolved. This work also shows his growing interest in colour, which he rigorously 

explored during his later years in the United States. The Bauhaus school of art and design had closed 

after Hitler came to power, and Albers carried its utopian ideas with him to a new teaching post 

at Black Mountain College in North Carolina.






Abstract in White, Green, Black, Blue, Red, Grey and Pink  c.1963

하양, 초록, 검정, 파랑, 빨강, 회색, 핑크의 추상 모빌


by Victor Pasmore (패스모어: 1908-1998)

born and worked Britain

Perspex and painted wood

purchased 2005


He believed that art derived from nature, and specially from its underlying processes

and structures rather than its surface appearance.  In his reliefs he brought ideas of growth and

abstract harmony into 3-dimensions. 






Tecelar 1957

Weaving/직조


by Lygia Pape (파페: 1927-2003)

born and worked Brazil

woodcut on paper

purchased 2011


Weaving 1957 is a woodcut in black ink printed on thin paper by the Brazilian artist Lygia Pape. The 

work is made up of a number of geometric forms, which overlap one another. 

The forms are comprised of horizontal grooves or lines that appear to be the result of 

the natural wood grain of the block used to make the print. Despite the simplicity of the shapes 

and patterns, the composition is complex giving the semblance of intersection, tessellation and 

superimposition, made more subtle by the effect of the wood grain 

which gives the work an optical impact similar to later op art.






Grand relief fendu No. 34/4/74  1964-5

Large Split Relief No. 34/4/74/큰 규모의 부조


by Sergio de Camargo (데 카마르고: 1930-1990)

born Brazil, worked Brazil, France

Polyvinyl acetate paint on limewood on plywood support

Purchased 1965


Brazilian artist Camargo livein in Paril from 1961 to 1974.  While living there  he made

a number of monochrome white works composed of cylindrical pieces of diagonally

cut wood, including 'Large Split Relief'.  These reliefs, which resemble crystalline growth,

generate a play of light and shadow across their surface.  The work also highlights the natural

material roughness of the wood, creating a dialogue between the organic textures of nature

and the carefully crafted character of art.






Composition B (No. 11) with Red  1935

붉은색의 구성 B


by Piet Mondrian(몬드리안: 1872-1944)

born Netherlands, worked Netherlands, France, Britain, USA

Oil paint on canvas

Heritage Lottery fund, the Art Fund, the Friends ofthe Tate Gallery and the Dr. Daniel bequest 1999


Mondrian's pursuit of a new spirituality and a new art for the modern world was fundamental

to the modernist art movement.  Here he reduces his colour to a single red rectangle,

giving the black lines greater importance as composisional elements. The structure

is slightly off-set, reflecting his opposition to the 'false ease' of symmetry in favor of

'the dynamic equilibrium of true life', for which he sought a pictorial equivalent.






1934(relief)  1934

1934(부조)


by Ben Nicholson (니콜슨: 1894-1982)

born Britain, worked Britain, Switzerland

Oil paint on mahogany

Purchased 1978


Nicholson was interested in the ways in which paintings can represent space.

In the 1930s, he made shallow reliefs in which areas of different depths define actual space.

In the most radical of these, colour was reduced to just white or grey to achieve

a sense of purity.  Depth and plain colour make the play of light and shadow an intrinsic part

of the work.  This emphasis was related to new ideas about living and, especially, to modern

architecture, in which natural light and formal simplicity were major concerns.







Quarante Huit Quai d'Auteuil  1935

48 Huit Quai d'Auteuil(니콜슨이 살던 집 주소)


by Winifred Noicholson(니콜슨: 1893-1981)

born Britain, worked Britain, France

Oil paint on board

purchased 1975


The title of this work refers to Winifred Nicholson's address in Paris, where she lived 

from 1932 to 1938, befriending artists such as Piet Mondrian, Constantin Brancusi,

Jean Arp and Hean Helion.  She painted her first abstract paintings in 1934, exhibiting

under the name Winifred Dacre.  The paintings are expressions of colour and light, 

and she wrote that 'the nature of abstract colour is utter purity - but colours wish to fly,

to merge, to change each other by their juxtapositions, to radiate, to shine, to withdraw 

deep within themselves.'






 Feb 2-54  1954

1954년 2월 2일


by Ben Nicholson (니콜슨: 1894-1982)

born Britain, woked Britain, Switzerland

Oil paint and graphite on canvas

Bequeathed  by Miss E. M. Hodgkins 1977


This painting is typical of Nicholson's still lifes of the early fifties with its overlapping forms,

often transparent, but given a stronger presence by accents of colour or pencil shading.  The construction

of these paintings is a development from his works of the mid 30s in which Nicholson allowed the forms

earlier paintings to penetrate later reworkings.  The surface has been rubbed down repeatedly and,

in common with many other such works of the period, is smooth.  The colour is applied both relatively

freely in thin washes and precisely and opaquely.







Sem titulo  1963

Untitled/무제


by Mira Schendel (쉔들: 1919-1988)

born Switzerland, worked Brazil

Oil paint on canvas

Presented by Tate Members 2006


In this work, geometric figures in subdued colours are suspended in a dark, abstract background.

The suble use of texture and treatment of the surface adds a three-dimensional  aspect to the painting.

forms are deliberately asymmetrical and hand-drawn, exemplifying the subtle subversion of European

geometric abstraction in Brazilian art through the introduction of organic or destabilising elements.

Schendel contributed to the development of Concrete and Neo-concrete art in Brazil during the 1960s,

though she remained detached from those groups and developed a distinct and unique body of work.







Metaesquema  1958


by Helio Oiticica(오시시카: 1937-1980)

born Brazil, worked Brazil, USA

Gouache on cardboard

Purchased 2007


Oiticica often worked in series, or bodies of works.  The 'Metaesquema' include over 350 small

scale paintings on card.  These compositions of opaque, monochrome, geometric forms,

often in primary colours, were inspired by the abstract art of Piet  Mondriand and

Kasimir Malevich.  In contrast to the rigorous order and structure of both European artists, however, 

Oiticicaintroduces elements of instability into his works.  The forms appear to jostle and bump together.






Contre-compositie 1925

Counter-Composition VI/반 구성


by Theo van Doesburg(두스부르흐: 1883-1931)

born Netherlands, worked Netherlands, Germany, France

Oil paint on canvas

Purchased 1982


Van Doesburg was the editor of 'De Stijl' magazine and its combination of art, architecture

and design reflected his won wide-ranging activities.  He painted his first 'Counter-Composition'

in 1924, using a diagonal grid to create a dynamic tension between the composition and the

rectilinear format of the canvas.  For van Doesburg, the shift marked a spiritual liberation

from the 'earth-bound' verticals and horizontals used by the De Stijl group.






Femme en pleurs 1937

Weeping Woman/울부짖는 여인


by Pablo Picasso (피카소: 1881-1973)

born Spain, worked Spain, France

Oil paint on canvas

Accepted by HM Government 1987


One of the worst atrocities of the Spanish Civil Was was the bombing of the Basque town

of Guernica by the German air force,lending their support to the National forces of 

General Franco. Picasso responded to the massacre by painting the vast mural 'Guernica'

and for months afterwards he made subsidiary paintings based on one of the figures in the 

mural: a weeping woman holding her dead child.  'Weeping Woman' is the last and most

elaborate of the series.  The woman's features are based on Picasso's lover Dora Maar.






Untitled  1967

무제


by Malangatana Ngwenya (응웨냐:  1936-2011)

born and worked Mozambique

Oil paint on hardboard

Purchased with funds provided by the Africa Acquistions Committee 2014


This painting depicts the violence and suffering endured by ordinary people in Mozambique

during the War of Independence from Portugal(1964-74) and was made while the conflict was

still raging.  Figures overlap, seemingly merging into one another and collapsing any sense

of perspective, a reflection on the importance of community and social relationships, shown here

in meltdown.  Three years before painting this, the artist had been imprisoned for 18 months

by the Portuguese secret police for his involvement in FRELIMO.






Autumnal Cannibalism  1936

가을의 카니발리즘


by Salvador Dali (1904-1989)

born Spain, worked Spain, France, USA

Oil paint on canvas

Purchased 1975


Painted just after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936, this work shows a couple

locked in a cannibalistic embrace.  They are pictured on a table-top, which merges into the

earthly tones of a Spanish landscape in the background.  The conflict between countrymen

is symbolised by the apple balanced on the head of the male figure, which refers to

the legend of Eilliam Tell, in which a father is forced to shoot at his son.






Espagne martyre  1937

Martyred Spain/순교한 스페인


by Andre Fougeron (푸제롱: 1913-1998)

born and worked France

Oil paint on canvas

Presented by the Friends of the Tate Gallery 2001







Cosmos y desastre  c. 1936

Cosmos and Disaster/코스모스와 대참사)


by David Alfaro Siqueiros (시케이로스: 1896-1974)

born Mexico, worked Mexico, USA

Duco, Pyroxilin, sand, wood on copper mesh over plywood

by the American Fund for the Tate Gallery 2002


'Cosmos and Disaster' reflects Siqueiros's technical experiments with paint thickened

by grit and splinters.  The pessimistic theme almost certainly echoes his response to the

outbreak of the Spanish Civil War.






Disparates (A Little Night Music)  1969

우둔한 자들(소야곡)


Disparates (Romulus and Remus)  1974

우둔한 자들(로물루스와 리무스)


by Peter De Francia(드 프란시아: 1921-2012)

born France, worked Britain, Canada, USA

graphite and ink on paper

Purchased 1986


The title "Disparates' or 'follies' is borrowed from etchings made  by Spanish artist

Francisco de Goya in the early 19th century that reflected the violence and unsettled politics

of the period  through sinister allegories.  De Francia's depictions of cruelty and greed update

Goya's project for the 20th century.  'Romulus and Remus' reimagines the foundation myth of 

ancient Rome, showing contemporary military leaders suckled by a wolf.  'A Little Night Music'

puns on musical instruments and of torture.  He commented on this work,

'terrible things happen and no one takes any notice.'






Five Day Forecast  1991

5일간의 일기예보


by Lorna Simpson (심슨: 1960 - )

born and works USA

5 photographs, gelatin silver print on paper 

and 15 engraved plaques

Purchased with funds provided by the Outset 2010


If portraiture is intended to communicate something unique about its subject, 

'Five Day Forecast' might be described as an 'anti-portrait'.  The economy of the images,

their serial arrangement and the use of black and white  recall the conventions 

of 19th century ethnographic photography, in which the subject becomes a de-invidualised representative

of a wider group.  But in Simpsons's work, rather than being available or scrutiny and categorisation, 

the figure is photopraphed cropped so only her torso is visible.  In this way, she remains ultimately

inaccessible to the viewer.






Lightning with Stag in its Glare  1958-85

번개와 반짝거리는 수컷


by Joseph Beuys(보이즈: 1921-1986)

born and worked Germany

Bronze, iron, aluminium, compass (39 elements)

Lent from a private collection 2009


In this massive installation, the suspended, bronze triangle embodies the energy of 

a powerful flash of lightning, which illuminates a group of half-formed creatures.

The 'stag' of the title was originally made from an ironing board and then cast in bright 

aluminium to suggest the glare of the lightning.  The cart represents a goat, and the clods of

 bronze on the floor are primodial creatures.  A small compass, mounted on top of box,

 is another reference, with the lightning flash itself, to the natural energies of the earth.











will continue...








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