올리베티 [Ing. C. Olivetti & C. SpA.]
이탈리아에 있는 유럽 최대의 사무기기 제조판매, 정보산업, 통신기술 및 전기통신 서비스 업체.
몬테디손, 피아트와 함께 이탈리아의 대표적인 기업으로, 1908년 10월 29일 카밀로 올리베티(Camillo Olivetti)가 자신의 이름을 딴 이탈리아 최초의 타자기회사(Ing. C. Olivetti & C., S.p.A.)로 창립하였다. 타자기와 탁상계산기 제조회사로 널리 알려져 있으며 최근에는 정보산업, 통신기술, 전기통신 부문에 집중하고 있다.
1930년대 중반 20여 개국에 제품을 수출하면서 사업의 다각화에도 성공하여 1940년대에 계산기 분야에도 진출하였으며, 1948년에는 세계 최초의 전동식 기록 탁상계산기를 발매하였다. 1954년 컴퓨터 개발에 착수, 1959년에 대형 전자계산기 ‘에레아 9003’을 생산하고, 미국의 명문 타자기 회사인 언더우드를 매수하였다.
그러나 그후 전자계산기에 대한 많은 개발비, 언더우드의 부진, 올리베티에 일가족의 불화 등으로 갑자기 경영부진에 빠졌고, 1964년에는 대형 전산기 부문을 미국 제너럴일렉트릭(GE)에 넘겨주었다. 1970년 후반 전자공학화 붐을 타고 정보처리 부문의 중점 개발로 사무자동화 관련제품이 큰 비중을 차지하기에 이르렀는데, 1986년 그 부문의 매출액이 전체의 85%선을 육박하였다. 1983년 AT&T와 제휴하여 통신사업에 진출하였으며, 1986년에는 제휴를 강화해 AT&T의 PC는 올리베티가 전적으로 생산하였다.
재무상태는 1999년 현재 총자산 757억 달러, 2001년 매출액 320억 유로이다. 본사는 피에몬테주(州) 토리노 근처의 이브레아(Ivrea)에 있다. 매출액의 96%는 1999년 6월 인수한 텔레콤 이탈리아 그룹(Telecom Italia Group)에 의해 이루어진다. 2001년 현재 종업원은 11만 6000명이다.
Olivetti & C. SpA
(영)Eng(ineer) C.Olivetti and Company Ltd. 정식 이름은 ING. C. Olivetti & C. SpA.
사무기기와 정보처리 시스템을 제조하는 회사이다. 본사는 이브레아에 있다.
전기기술자 카밀로 올리베티(1868~1943)에 의해 설립된 이 회사는 1908년에 타자기를 생산하기 시작했다. 1925년 올리베티는 그의 아들인 아드리아노 올리베티가 현대적인 제조술과 공장경영에 대한 공부를 하도록 미국에 보냈다. 그가 귀환하면서 올리베티에시사는 합리적이고 현대적인 운영방식을 도입하는 한편 M-40이라는 새로운 타자기 모델을 개발하는 등 전면적인 재편을 단행했다. M-40은 1930년대에 상당한 인기를 누렸다. 1938년 젊은 올리베티가 그의 아버지를 이어 회장직을 계승했다. 그가 회사를 경영하는 동안, 올리베티에시사는 이탈리아 제2의 기계류 수출회사가 되었고, 유럽에서도 선두적인 타자기 및 사무기기 제조회사가 되었으며 계산기, 소형컴퓨터, 필기 시스템 및 관련 상품들도 제조하고 있다.
이 회사는 1982년 일본의 샤프사와 합작투자를 해서 고속복사기와 다른 사무기들을 생산했다. 같은 해에 전자회사이자 미국의 선두적인 자동금전출납기기 제조업체인 다큐텔사가 이 회사의 미국 자회사인 올리베티사(Olivetti Corp.)를 매입했다. 이 합병 합의는 올리베티에시사를 다큐텔사의 최대 단일주주로 만들었으며, 다큐텔사의 기업명도 다큐텔올리베티사로 바꾸었다. 1983년 올리베티사 주식의 1/4을 미국전신전화회사(AT & T)가 매입했는데, 이 매입은 올리베티사가 유럽에서 AT & T 상품의 주요한 유통업체가 된다는 합의에 따른 것이었다. /브리태니커 (2017.3.26)
Olivetti S.p.A. is an Italian manufacturer of typewriters, computers, tablets, smartphones, printers and other such business products as calculators and fax machines. Headquartered in Ivrea, in the Metropolitan City of Turin, the company has been part of the Telecom Italia Group since 2003. The first commercial programmable "desktop computer", the Programma 101, was produced by Olivetti in 1964 and was a commercial success.
Olivetti M40 typewriter (1930), designed by Camillo Olivetti with
Gino Levi Martinoli (Museo nazionale della scienza e della
tecnologia Leonardo da Vinci, Milan).
The company was founded as a typewriter manufacturer by Camillo Olivetti in 1908 in Ivrea, Italy. The firm was mainly developed by his son Adriano Olivetti. Olivetti opened its first overseas manufacturing plant in 1930, and its Divisumma electric calculator was launched in 1948. Olivetti produced Italy's first electronic computer, the transistorised Elea 9003, in 1959, and purchased the Underwood Typewriter Company that year. In 1964 the company sold its electronics division to the American company General Electric. It continued to develop new computing products on its own; one of these was Programma 101, the first commercially produced personal computer. In the 1970s and 1980s they were the biggest manufacturer for office machines in Europe and 2nd biggest PC vendor behind IBM in Europe.
In 1980 Olivetti is distributed in Indonesia through Dragon Computer & Communication.
The Olivetti Lettera 22 typewriter, designed by Marcello Nizzoli
Olivetti was famous for the attention it gave to design:
[A] preoccupation with design developed into a comprehensive corporate philosophy, which embraced everything from the shape of a space bar to the color scheme for an advertising poster.
From the 1940s to the 1960s, Olivetti industrial design was led by Marcello Nizzoli, responsible for the Lexicon 80 (1948) and the portable Lettera 22 (1950). Later, Mario Bellini and Ettore Sottsass directed design. Bellini designed the Programma 101 (1965), Divisumma 18 (1973) and Logos 68 (1973) calculators and the TCV-250 video display terminal (1966), among others. Sottsass designed the Tekne 3 typewriter (1958), Elea 9003 computer (1959), the Praxis 48 typewriter (1964), the Valentine portable typewriter (1969), and others. Michele De Lucchi designed the Art Jet 10 inkjet printer (1999) (winner of the Compasso d'Oro) and the Gioconda calculator (2001). During the 1970s Olivetti manufactured and sold two ranges of minicomputers. The 'A' series started with the typewriter-sized A4 through to the large A8, and the desk-sized DE500 and DE700 series. George Sowden worked for Olivetti from 1970 until 1990, and designed their first desktop computer, Olivetti L1, in 1978 (following ergonomic research lasting two years). In 1991, Sowden won the prestigious ADI Compasso d'Oro Award for the design of the Olivetti fax OFX420.
Olivetti paid attention to more than the importance of product design; graphic and architectural design were also considered pivotal to the company. Giovanni Pintori was hired by Adriano Olivetti in 1936 to work in the publicity department. Pintori was the creator of the Olivetti logo and many promotional posters used to advertise the company and its products. During his activity as Art Director from 1950, Olivetti's graphic design obtained several international awards, he designed impressive works that created the Olivetti image and were an emblematic Italian reference in the history of 20th-century design.
Those designers also created the Olivetti Synthesis office furniture series which mainly were used to be installed in Olivetti's own head- and worldwide branch offices and show rooms. Quite unknown is also that Olivetti produced some industrial production machinery like metal working machines of the Horizon series.
Olivetti began with mechanical typewriters when the company was founded in 1909, and produced them until the mid 1990s. Until the mid 1960s they were fully mechanical, and there were designs like the portable Olivetti Valentine designed by Ettore Sottsass. With the Tekne/Editor series and Praxis 48, some of the first electromechanical typewriters were introduced. The Editor series was used for speed typing championship competition. The Editor 5 from 1969 was the top model of that series, with proportional spacing and the ability to support justified text borders. In 1972 the electromechanical typeball machines of the Lexicon 90 to 94C series were introduced, as competitors to the IBM Selectric typewriters, the top model 94c supported proportional spacing and justified text borders like Editor 5, and lift-off correction. In 1978 Olivetti was one of the first manufacturers to introduce electronic daisywheel printer-based word processing machines called TES 401 and TES 501. Later the ET series typewriters without (or with) LCD and different levels of text editing capabilities were popular in offices. Models in that line were ET 121, ET 201, ET 221, ET 225, ET 231, ET 351, ET 109, ET 110, ET 111, ET 112, ET 115, ET 116, ET 2000, ET 2100, ET 2200, ET 2250, ET 2300, Et 2400 and ET 2500. For home users in 1982 the Praxis 35, Praxis 40 and 45D were some of the first portable electronic typewriters, later Olivetti added the Praxis 20, ET Compact 50, ET Compact 60, ET Compact 70, ET Compact 65/66, the ET Personal series and Linea 101, the top model were 8 lines LCD based portables like Top 100 and Studio 801, with the possibility to save the text to 3,5 inch floppy disk. The professional line became an upgrade with the ETV series video typewriters based on CP/M operating system, ETV 240, ETV 250, ETV 300, ETV 350 and later MS-DOS operating system based ETV 260, ETV 500, ETV 2700, ETV 2900, ETV 4000s word processing systems having floppy drives or even harddisk. Some of them (ETV 300, 350, 500, 2900) were external boxes which could be connected through optional serial interface to many of the ET series office typewriters, the others were fully integrated having an external monitor which could be installed on a holder over the desk. Most of the ET/ETV/Praxis series electronic typewriters were designed by Marion Bellini. By 1994 Olivetti stopped production of typewriters, as most users had transitioned to Personal Computers.
Olivetti's Programma 101 is considered the first commercial
desktop computer. Exhibition at Museo nazionale della
scienza e della tecnologia Leonardo da Vinci, Milan.
Between 1955 and 1964 Olivetti developed some of the first transistorized mainframe computer systems, such as the Elea 9003. Although 40 large commercial 9003 and over 100 smaller 6001 scientific machines were completed and leased to customers to 1964, low sales, loss of two key managers and financial instability caused Olivetti to withdraw from the field in 1964.
In 1965 Olivetti released the Programma 101, considered the first commercial desktop personal computer. It was saved from the sale of the computer division to GE thanks to an employee, Gastone Garziera, who spent successive nights changing the internal categorization of the product from "computer" to "calculator", so leaving the small team in Olivetti and creating some awkward situations in the office, since that space was now owned by GE.
Olivetti's first modern personal computer, the Olivetti M20, featuring a Zilog Z8000 CPU, was released in 1982. In 1983 Olivetti introduced the M24, a clone of the IBM PC using DOS and the Intel 8086 processor (at 8 MHz) instead of the Intel 8088 used by IBM (at 4.77 MHz). The M24 was sold in North America as the AT&T 6300. Olivetti also manufactured the AT&T 6300 Plus, which could run both DOS and Unix. The M24 in the US also was sold as Xerox 6060. The M28 was Olivetti’s first PC to have the Intel 80286 processor.
In 1983 Olivetti produced its M10 laptop computer, a 8085-based workalike of the successful Radio Shack TRS-80 Model 100, which it marketed in Europe. These were the first laptops to sell in million-unit quantities, though the it:Olivetti M10 itself only attained sales figures in the tens of thousands and went out of production within two years.
In 1985 the company acquired a controlling share in the British computer manufacturer Acorn Computers Ltd; a third partner was Thomson SA. Olivetti sold the Thomson MO6 and Acorn BBC Master Compact with brand names Olivetti Prodest PC128 and PC128s respectively. At the same time Olivetti also tried to compete with de: Schneider Euro PC with the MS-DOS based Prodest PC1, but without luck.
In 1987 Olivetti introduced the LSX line of computers which was based on the Motorola 68k processor. They could run either MOS or Olivetti's Unix, X/OS. In 1989 Olivetti introduced the 80486 based next generation of LSX workstations with the LSX 5020 with EISA-Bus, it was shown in CeBit 1989 as "Computing Platform CP486".
In 1990, Olivetti had its own distribution network in New Zealand through Essentially Software Ltd. (owned by Gary McNabb) located at Mt. Eden in Auckland and Wellington, where an Olivetti M300-100 16 MHz PCs with 80386SX CPU were sold for NZ$7395 and used as graphical work station for design houses using Corel Draw as graphical program. The New Zealand distribution stopped in 1991 when Olivetti could not supply their PCs.
Olivetti also sold quasi-portable 8086/8088-based PCs with an integrated keyboard and one or two integrated 3.5" floppy disk drives, running DOS 3.27, an Olivetti OEM version of PC DOS 3.20 with minor improvements like the M21 portable (based on M24) and the M15. Also later Olivetti produced interesting laptops like M111, M211, S20, D33, Philos and Echos series. A very interesting subnotebook was the Olivetti Quaderno, about the same size as an A5 paper – it was the grandfather of the netbooks introduced 20 years later.
End of computer production
Olivetti did attempt to recover its position by introducing the Envision in 1995, a full multimedia PC, to be used in the living room; this project was a failure. Packard Bell managed to successfully introduce a similar product in the U.S. but only some years later. The main problem of the company was its inability to conjugate innovation with the quality standards it had committed itself to, at a time when the margins on the PC market were diminishing as not only the market but also the number of PC clone producers grew. The company continued to develop personal computers until it sold its PC business in 1997.
* PR40, PR2, PR2+ - dot-matrix printer, namely as passbook printer
* PG-series and PGL-series - black and white digital printers
* d-Color p-series color digital printers
* A3 and A4 series MFP
End of Olivetti as a separate company
In the 1990s, Olivetti's computer businesses were in great difficulty, reportedly because of the competition from US vendors and new cheap manufacturers for PC components in Taiwan like ASUS, MSI, Gigabyte and so on from which local system builders profited much to offer cheaper PCs than Olivetti did with their own designs. It was on the brink of collapse and had needed government support to stay afloat. A company in transition, it had moved out of the typewriter business into personal computers before embracing telecoms between 1997 and 1999. In the process it had lost around three-quarters of its staff.
In 1999, The Luxembourg-based company Bell S.A. acquired a controlling stake in Olivetti, but sold it to a consortium including the Pirelli and Benetton groups two years later. Olivetti then launched a hostile bid for Telecom Italia in February 1999, despite being less than a seventh of the size of its target. In a take-over battle against Deutsche Telekom, and other potential bidders, Olivetti won out and controlled 52.12% of former monopoly Telecom Italia, Italy's #1 fixed-line and mobile phone operator. However, the ownership structure of the merged Olivetti / Telecom Italia was complex and multi-layered with Olivetti took on around $16 billion of extra debt. It was then referred to as the "Olivetti/Telecom Italia affair" because of the unpleasant secret affairs behind.
After a 2003 reorganization Olivetti became the office equipment and systems services subsidiary of Telecom Italia. In 2003 Olivetti was absorbed into the Telecom Italia group, maintaining a separate identity as Olivetti Tecnost.
Rebirth and resumption of computer production
In 2005, Telecom Italia re-launched the company in the information technology sector, investing €200 million; at first restoring the original Olivetti brand, then replacing it with Olivetti Tecnost in 2003. In 2007, Olivetti launched the "LINEA_OFFICE", designed by Jasper Morrison for Olivetti; a new line of PCs, notebooks, printers, fax machines and calculators. Olivetti today operates in Italy and Switzerland, and has sales associates in 83 countries. Research and development are located in Agliè, Carsoli and Scarmagno in Italy, and Yverdon, Switzerland.
In March 2011 Olivetti began producing the OliPad, its first tablet computer, featuring a ten-inch screen, 3G, WiFi, Bluetooth connectivity, Nvidia Tegra 2, Android 2.2.2 and a 1024 x 600 display. It also features an application store, with apps specifically designed by Olivetti for 'business & government'.
In 2014 the R&D department in Arnad was sold to SICPA.
In 2013, Olivetti launched a series of smartphones called Oliphone.
* Olivetti Oliphone M8140
* Olivetti Oliphone Q8145
* Olivetti Oliphone Q8150
* Olivetti Oliphone Q9047
* Olivetti Oliphone WG451
* Olivetti Oliphone WG501
카밀로 올리베티 [Olivetti, Camillo, 1868.8~1943.12]
Olivetti M40 typewriter (1930), designed by Camillo Olivetti with
Gino Levi Martinoli (Museo nazionale della scienza e della
tecnologia Leonardo da Vinci, Milan).
Camillo Olivetti (August 1868 in Ivrea, Piedmont, Italy – December 1943 in Biella, Italy) was an Italian electrical engineer and founder of Olivetti & Co., SpA., the Italian manufacturer of computers, printers and other business machines. The company was later run by his son Adriano.
* Adriano Olivetti
아드리아노 올리베티 [Olivetti, Adriano, 1901.4.11~1960.2.17]
Adriano Olivetti in Venice, 1957.
Adriano Olivetti (born on 11 April 1901 in Ivrea, Piedmont, died 27 February 1960 on a train from Milan to Lausanne) was an Italian engineer, politician and industrialist whose entrepreneurial activity thrived on the idea that profit should be reinvested for the benefits of the whole society. He was son of the founder of Olivetti, Camillo Olivetti, and Luisa Revel, the daughter of a prominent Waldensian pastor and scholar. Adriano Olivetti was known worldwide during his lifetime as the Italian manufacturer of Olivetti typewriters, calculators, and computers.
Olivetti was an entrepreneur and innovator who transformed shop-like operations into a modern factory. In and out of the factory, he both practiced and preached the utopian system of "the community movement", but he was not an astute enough politician to have a mass following.
The Olivetti empire had been begun by his father Camillo. Initially, the "factory" (consisting of 30 workers) concentrated on electric measurement devices. By 1908, 25 years after Remington in the United States, Olivetti started to produce typewriters.
Adriano's father Camillo, who was Jewish, believed that his children could get a better education at home. Adriano's formative years were spent under the tutelage of his mother, daughter of the local Waldensian pastor, an educated and sober woman. Also, as a socialist, Camillo emphasized the non-differentiation between manual and intellectual work. His children, during their time away from study, worked with and under the same conditions as his workers. The discipline and sobriety Camillo imposed on his family induced rebellion in Adriano's adolescence manifested by a dislike of "his father's" workplace and by his studying at a polytechnic school of subjects other than the mechanical engineering his father wanted.
Nevertheless, after graduation in chemical engineering at the Polytechnic University of Turin in 1924 he joined the company for a short while. When he became undesirable to Mussolini's Fascist regime, his father sent him to the United States to learn the roots of American industrial power. For the same reasons he later went to England. Upon his return he married Paola Levi, a daughter of Giuseppe Levi and a sister of his good friend Natalia Ginzburg; a marriage that produced three children but did not last long.
His visit to various plants in the United States, and especially Remington, convinced Adriano that productivity is a function of the organizational system. With the approval of father Camillo, he organized the production system at Olivetti on a quasi-Taylorian model and transformed the shop into a factory with departments and divisions. Possibly as a result of this reorganization, output per man-hour doubled within five years. Olivetti for the first time sold half of the typewriters used in Italy in 1933. Adriano Olivetti shared with his workers the productivity gains by increasing salaries, fringe benefits, and services.
In 1931 he visited the USSR and created an Advertising Department at Olivetti which worked with artists and designers. The creation of an Organization Office followed one year later, when he became general manager, and the project for the first portable typewriter started.
His success in business did not diminish his idealism. In the 1930s he developed an interest in architecture, as well as urban and community planning. He supervised a housing plan for the workers at Ivrea (a small city near Turin, where the Olivetti plant is still located) and a zoning proposal for the adjacent Aosta Valley. Under Fascism, patronizing workers at work and at home was in line with the corporative design of the regime. While Adriano showed distaste for the regime, he joined the Fascist Party and became a Catholic. Yet during World War II he participated in the underground antifascist movement, was jailed, and at the end sought refuge in Switzerland. There he was in close contact with the intellectual emigrees and he was able to develop further his socio-philosophy of the Community Movement. He also had contacts with representatives of the British Special Operations Executive. With these he tried to avoid Allied invasion of Italy and to obtain a negotiated Italian retreat from the war assuming a mediation of the Holy See and making strong the support that he enjoyed with influential Italian political circles.
During the immediate post-war years the Olivetti empire expanded rapidly, only to be briefly on the verge of bankruptcy after the acquisition of Underwood in the late 1950s. During this period, first calculators and then computers replaced the typewriter as a prime production focus. Adriano shared his time between business pursuits and attempts to practice and spread the utopian ideal of community life. His belief was that people who respect each other and their environment can avoid war and poverty. His utopian idea was similar to that preached by Charles Fourier and Robert Owen during the previous century.
In his enterprises, Adriano Olivetti's attempts at utopia may be translated in practice as actions of an enlightened boss or a form of corporatism. He decreased the hours of work and increased salaries and fringe benefits. By 1957 Olivetti workers were the best paid of all in the metallurgical industry and Olivetti workers showed the highest productivity. His corporatism also succeeded in having his workers accept a company union not tied to the powerful national metallurgical trade unions.
During the 1950s, in a limited way, the community movement succeeded politically in Ivrea. (Adriano was even elected mayor of Ivrea in 1956.) But the utopia at the factory and in Italy at large began withering away even before Adriano's death in 1960.
Adriano Olivetti's era saw great changes in Italian business and in industrial relations. New organizational methods were sought and humanistic idealism spread during the cruel time of World War II as well as during the difficult post-war years. The utopia of Olivetti could not have easily survived, but it helped induce the rapid reconversion of Italy's industry from war to peace-time production.
1908.10.29 - 이탈리아 타자기회사 올리베티(Olivetti) 창립